A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings. Fixed-wing aircraft are distinct from rotary-wing aircraft, in which the wings form a rotor mounted on a spinning shaft, and ornithopters, in which the wings flap in similar manner to a bird. Glider fixed-wing aircraft, including free-flying gliders of various kinds and tethered kites, can use moving air to gain height. Powered fixed-wing aircraft that gain forward thrust from an engine (aeroplanes) include powered paragliders, powered hang gliders and some ground effect vehicles. The wings of a fixed-wing aircraft are not necessarily rigid; kites, hang-gliders, variable-sweep wing aircraft and aeroplanes using wing-warping are all fixed-wing aircraft.
Non powered heavier-than-air craft capable of sustained flight. Though many men contributed to the development of the glider, the most famous pioneer was Otto Lilienthal (1848–96) of Germany, who, with his brother Gustav, began experiments in 1867 on the buoyancy and resistance of air. Lilienthal also investigated camber and wing sections and studied ways to increase the stability of the gliders he built, finally incorporating stabilizing tail surfaces. In 1891 he built his first man-carrying craft, with which he could take off by running downhill into the wind.
In 1896 Octave Chanute, French-born American engineer, began designing gliders that were flown by others under his supervision. He discarded Lilienthal’s method of securing control by a fixed rear fin with the horizontal tail parts freely hinging upward, and instead substituted a rudder and articulated (segmented) wings. Chanute’s gliders were so stable that they made 2,000 flights without an accident.
Orville and Wilbur Wright built their most successful early glider in 1902. Following experimentation they decided to use a vertical rudder that was movable in flight. They then added a horizontal elevator and combined their adjustable vertical rudder with a wing-warping mechanism that permitted them to move the trailing edges of the wings up and down. This perfect control made their gliding safe and allowed them to proceed to the powered airplane.
To fly, a glider must be accelerated to flying speed, the speed at which wings generate enough lift to overcome the force of gravity. In most of the early gliders, flying speed was very low; normal practice was to fly into a wind so that the actual acceleration required was not great. Today’s favoured launching techniques are the airplane tow and the automobile tow. The tow rope normally used is about 200 feet (60 metres) long with a steel ring attached at each end, fitting the tow hooks of the towing vehicle and the glider. Gliders are also launched by shock-cord launching, which works on the principle of a slingshot, or by winch tow, which works like a giant fishing reel, with the glider attached to one end like a fish. While hang gliders usually are launched from a high point and descend, sailplane gliders can soar for hours on the lift from thermals and rising air due to rising terrain.
Since 1935, gliders equipped with recording instruments have gained in reputation as tools for aeronautical and meteorological research. Gliders were widely used in World War II to carry troops and goods. They, and sailplanes in particular, have become increasingly popular for recreational purposes and as vehicles for sports competition.