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BOEING 777

 

The Boeing 777 is one of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet aircraft developed and manufactured by Boeing coapny. It is the world's largest twinjet and has a typical seating capacity of 314 to 396 passengers, with a range of 5,240 to 8,555 nautical miles . Commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven", It has the largest-diameter turbofan engines of any aircraft, long raked wings, six wheels on each main landing gear, fully circular fuselage cross-section and a blade-shaped tail cone. Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was designed to replace older wide-body airliners and bridge the capacity difference between Boeing's 767 and 747. As Boeing's first fly-by-wire aircraft, it has computer-mediated controls. It was also the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely with computer-aided design.

The following are specifications of Boeing 777, it is produced in two fuselage lengths as of 2017. The original 777-200 variant entered commercial service in 1995, followed by the extended-range 777-200ER in 1997. The stretched 777-300, which is 33.25 ft longer, followed in 1998. The initial 777-200, extended-range -200ER, and -300 versions are equipped with General Electric GE90, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 800 engines. They have since been collectively referred to as 777 Classics. The extended-range 777-300ER and lon range 777-200LR variants entered service in 2004 and 2006 respectively, while the 777F, a freighter version, debuted in February 2009; these second generation variants all feature high-output GE90 engines and extended raked wingtips. The 777-200LR is one of the world's longest-range airliners, able to fly more than halfway around the globe and holds the record for the longest distance flown non-stop by a commercial aircraft.[8][9] In November 2013, Boeing announced the development of the third-generation of the 777, the 777X, consisting of the 777-8 and 777-9 "mini-jumbo jet" variants. The 777X features composite folding wings and GE9X engines plus further technologies developed for the Boeing 787, and scheduled to enter service by 2020.

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About the historical background of Boeing 777, It has started its commercial service with United Airlines on June 7, 1995. The 777 has received more orders than any other wide-body airliner; as of December 2017, more than 60 customers had placed orders for 1,962 aircraft of all variants, with 1,534 delivered. The most common and successful variant is the 777-300ER with 767 delivered and 839 orders, Emirates operates the largest 777 fleet, with 161 passenger and freighter aircraft as of July 2017. The 777 has been involved in six hull losses as of October 2016; the Asiana Airlines Flight 214 accident in July 2013 was its first fatal crash in 18 years of service.

The 777 ranks as one of Boeing's best elling models. Airlines have acquired the type as a comparatively fuel-efficient alternative to other wide-body jets and have increasingly deployed the aircraft on long-haul transoceanic routes. Direct market competitors include the Airbus A330-300, the Airbus A350 XWB, and the out-of-production A340 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11. The 787 Dreamliner, which entered service in 2011, shares design features and a common type rating for pilots with the 777.

In addition, The design phase for the new twinjet was different from Boeing's previous commercial jetliners. For the first time, eight major airlines., All Nippon Airways, American Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Delta Air Lines, Japan Airlines, Qantas, and United Airlines had a role in the development. This was a departure from industry practice, where manufacturers typically designed aircraft with minimal customer input. The eight airlines that contributed to the design process became known within Boeing as the "Working Together" group. At the first group meeting in January 1990, a 23-page questionnaire was distributed to the airlines, asking what each wanted in the design. By March 1990, Boeing and the airlines had decided upon a basic design configuration: a cabin cross-section close to the 747's, capacity up to 325 passengers, flexible interiors, a glass cockpit, fly-by-wire controls, and 10 percent better seat-mile costs than the A330 and MD-11. Boeing selected its Everett factory in Washington, home of 747 production, as the 777's final assembly site.

Therefore, On October 14, 1990, United Airlines became the 777's launch customer when it placed an order for 34 Pratt & Whitney-powered aircraft valued at US$11 billion with options on an additional 34. The development phase coincided with United's replacement program for its aging DC-10s. United required that the new aircraft be capable of flying three different routes: Chicago to Hawaii, Chicago to Europe, and non-stop from Denver, a hot and high airport, to Hawaii. ETOPS certification was also a priority for United, given the overwater portion of United's Hawaii routes. In January 1993, a team of United developers joined other airline teams and Boeing designers at the Everett factory. The 240 design teams, with up to 40 members each, addressed almost 1,500 design issues with individual aircraft components. The fuselage diameter was increased to suit Cathay Pacific, the baseline model grew longer for All Nippon Airways, and British Airways' input led to added built-in testing and interior flexibility, along with higher operating weight options.